Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II
Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II is a continuation here from the previous post – we will talk about Human Values and Ethical Values – Role of educational institutes in inculcating values. We will be doing this by focussing on the following questions:
- What are ‘values’?
- Definition of human values.
- Common human values.
- Intrinsic values and extrinsic values
- Difference between ethical values, human values, and moral values.
- Role of family and society in inculcating Human Values and Ethical Values
- Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II explains various methods of promoting values in family
- Methods of promoting values in society
- Role of educational institutions in inculcating values- Education system and values, role of education in promoting ethical values, contents of value education, role of educators in value education
- Need of human value
Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II Sixth point onwards…
Common Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II are discussed as under:
- Honesty, fairness, loyalty, sharing and solidarity
- Openness, acceptance, recognition, appreciation, and listening
- Brotherhood, empathy, compassion, friendship, and love
- Civility, considerate and mutual respect
6. Role of Family and society in inculcating Human Values and Ethical Values
Values are essential for a sound character. The first school a child attends is its home, and parents are the first teachers. With the help of their conduct and behaviour, they induce an influence on their children and play an essential role in inculcating values in their children. Childhood is a period when the concept of right and wrong are developed and parents becomes the first one to introduce this to children. The close connection between parent and children determines the personality of a child.
A child who lives with several unmarried adults that share child rearing responsibility may have a different concept of family as compared to a child living with one divorced parent. Similarly, a child who has always lived with biological parents and is surrounded with sibling has a different point of view about family.
But the societies of the entire world despite all differences, have agreed upon one prime thing and that is the effect if family on strengthening religious beliefs among children. These religious belief, in the basic explanation can be understood as that system of those practises and believes influencing human events where man is helpless to explain them.
Family has been defined as “a group of person united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption constituting a simple household, inter communications and interacting with each other in their respective social roles of father and mother, son and daughter, husband and wife, brother and sisters creating a common culture”.
- The value system practised in the family and at home becomes the foundation stone for child. Moral values like truthfulness, peace, honesty, happiness, justice, etc. are instilled in a child’s thought, actions and feelings. The value system practised in the family becomes the ideal for a child/human being.
- Children identify themselves with family, other close relatives. Many a times, someone close also becomes a role model, whom they start imitating. The behavioural problems in any child can be corrected only through family’s intervention and close help. This is also because of the reason that most of the time in adolescence is spent with the family only.
- Social standard and customs defined by family only defines and provide the emotional and physical basis for a child. These values introduced by the family becomes the foundation stone for how a child learn, function and grow in the world. These beliefs and values are then transmitted by the child further into the world.
- Family is the first home of citizenship and mother is the first and most important teacher of the child. From mother, he/she would learn values of life like truthfulness, honesty, Love, selfless service, etc.
- Good relationship between husband and wife also helps children imbibe good values. In ancient India, women were occupying same status as men in society or perhaps even higher.
- A child learns its behaviour by modelling what he/she see around him/her. Family plays essential role here in child’s socialisation ad bearing progress of the child. Joint family system plays an effective role in social and moral development of a child. It helps children to imbibe human values and ethical values. It also stops in growth of any negative mental tendencies, and if grown, then eradicating them. Behavioural problems in a child can be corrected by involving family
- Children identify themselves with their parents, other family members, close relatives, etc. and make them their role models – they imitate and engage into hero – worship too.
- Family values helps a child to stand strong on his views despite others efforts to break through with opposing beliefs. A child has a strong sense of what is right and wrong, and are less likely to becomes victims of deviant influences.
Family not only guides a child in its progressive path but also demonstrates the appropriate behaviour by their actions. It is the parents in particular, who with their conduct and behaviour set an example for the children. Parents at time show a lot of concern for their children and instead of correcting them, start to pamper even for their improper behaviour. It is detrimental for the growth of the child. In the same manner, in another opposite extremity, some parents are too strict with their children. They try to overpower them and do not let the child enjoy the bliss of his innocence.
Another kind is the one who are not much concerned about their children either due to lack of time or are not educated enough to guide their children. Whatever be the result, it certainly affects the child’s behaviour. The parents handling of the children should be such that it could take care of all aspects and could provide them firm guidance without being too strict. Extremities on part of parents could lead to introvert or oversensitive behaviour or may turn the child into dominant or aggressive person.
Individual values – honesty, happiness, loyalty, truthfulness, sense of responsibility, peace, etc are inculcated by the family without any conscious effort. Other values like high competition, globalisation, social media, stress on materialism, etc. are the values we learn from the current scenario of nuclear families, single parents, and how it affects the transmission and inculcation of values.
7. Methods of promoting human values and ethical values in family
- Promoting basic values – Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II figures out Values such as tolerance, sympathy, non – violence, and compassion need to be cultivated for the well beings on self and others. This will help in making the world more sustainable and filled with mutual understanding. It will help in overtaking our feelings of suspicions, fears, insecurity and tension. We must ensure harmony and peace at home in order to eliminate stress and negative feelings. All these feelings are possible only through education in values, and consciously and unconsciously imbibed through values being practised in the family.
- Harmony in family – Harmony among all family members is basic for promoting good values. Satisfaction, success and happiness are different facets of harmony in life. Harmony should be maintained in all spheres of life especially in family:
- Between wisdom and habits;
- Between individual and family;
- Between self and family;
- Between body and life;
- Between the purpose of life and the method of living
- Positive attitude – All the members of the family must have a positive attitude which can enhance the reputation and prestige of the family.
- Constructive actions – Negative actions bring sorrow, suffering and pain, whereas constructive action brings pleasure and joy. The more we can for happiness of other, the greater our own senses of well being is.
- Love – Love, sympathy, and friendship creates a balanced outlook.
- Chapter on family life in school curriculum –
- Cooperation among family members
- Need of family
- Soft speaking
- Love and affection
- Respect for elders and Youngers accordingly
- Participation in family functions
- Cleanliness and good environment of home
8. Role of society in inculcating human values and ethical values
- A society thrives best when it is composed of men and women who are intelligent, honest, hard – working and dutiful.
- It also liberates and limits our potential as an individual and also shoes our attitudes, beliefs, ideals and morals.
- Society teaches these values through the following –
- Social cohesion, social harmony, cultural pluralism, unity among the people of different religions, no ethnic conflict, and tolerance towards different section of the society.
8. Role of educational institutions in inculcating human values and ethical values
Education system and human values and ethical values
- Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II declares that though value education is both parent and society responsibility, but schools as organised institutions out to take the major responsibility in fostering values in students. This endeavour is to be seen as an investment in building the foundation for lifelong learning, promoting human excellence as well as promoting social cohesion, national integration and global unity.
- Education is an effective and pervasive phenomenon for all round individual development and social transformaion. And true meaning of education is harmonious development of heart, head and hand i.e., enlightenment of mind, compassion and dignity of labour.
- Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II presents you some reports.Kothari Commission has advocated for values at all stages of education. Apart from the report of the education commissions, the UNESCO Declaration on Higher Education also has emphasised on the need for promotion of values through Higher Education. The International Conference on Higher Education held in 1998 and attended by about 180 countries declared that the important should be given to the the dissemination of universally accepted values like freedom, justice and equality.
- The UNESCO declaration on Higher Education also focussed attention on involving students in social service activities. It states “Higher education should reinforce its role of service to society, especially assisting in the elimination of poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger, environmental degradation and disease”.
- The whole system of education is linked with the development of values. Moral and spiritual training is an essential part of education. If education is to meet the moral challenges of the age and play its part in the life of community, it should be liberating as well as life giving. For this, a vast responsibility rests on the shoulders of our educational institutions.
Role of education in promoting human values and ethical values
- The different aims of education for Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II of this article are the development of human personality, pursuit of knowledge, preservation of culture, development of character, promotion of social justice, scientific temper, democracy, secularism, etc. Teachers have a very essential role to play in the development of scientific temper, integrity and overall personality of children.
- Some of the human values and ethical values that can be taught by educational institutions are:
- Lessons of honesty, social justice, sensitising children with empathy towards vulnerable sections of the society;
- Punctuality, commitment, sincerity, sharing, caring, helping, fairness;
- Respect for elders, truthfulness, tolerance, peace, love for nature and mankind, teaching gender equality, positive attitude, spirituality, patriotism, discipline, etc.
- Health and hygiene, responsibility for self development, responsibility towards one’s work/duty, critical and creative thinking, appreciation for beauty and aesthetics, social responsibility, love, care and compassion.
- For each of these values to be in place, certain attitudes and skills are required to be practised.
Need for value education
The most important reason for reorienting education for values is the fact that the current model of education contributes to the lopsided development of students. Value education model puts emphasis on cognitive to the total neglect of the affective domain. In the current system, students are nurtured in a spirit of excessive competition and are trained since the beginning for this. The individualistic idea excellence is promoted at the cost of emotional and relational skills.
In school, the learning and understand has become limited to only subjects. They hardly get to know how they should live their lives, commit themselves to the welfare of the country, care about the environment and other social and moral issues. In such situation, they are a little lost as in not clear exactly what sort of person they hope to become when they complete their school education. Such a perspective defeats the very purpose of education – the wholesome development of personality including ethical development which is fundamental for making responsible decision making in case of moral conflicts.
Quality of education should not be considered in fragmented terms but in more holistic and expanded manner – the formation of the whole persons and full flowering of the human being and character building. Improvement of quality of education is not the only reason for value education. This need to inculcate values among students is also due to fast degeneration of values in our country. Our society is shaken by conflicts, violence and corruption. Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II also forecasts that there is distortion in our value system, as a result of which falsehood and corruption is on rise.
Majority of us are interested in our own families and not interested in fulfilling responsibilities to society. Although the degeneration of values has been always there, but now it has become a major concern. Typical examples of value erosions are people becoming more greedy and selfish. Honesty is disappearing and violence has becomes the order of the day. Corruption and power abuse have become more common than ever.
The problem of declining values is multidimensional arising out of combination of major social forces such as globalisation, materialism, consumerism, commercialisation of education, threats to humanity due to climatic change, environmental degradation, violence, terrorism, etc. These have led to insecurities, individualistic life styles, acceleration of desires, misses of science and technology, sense of alienation, pessimism, etc.
The other points shall be covered in the next article. This is Human Values and Ethical Values – Part II: Role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
Note: This article is a compilation from various resources on internet and books.